This book presents state-of-the-art works and systematic reviews in the emerging field of computational intelligence (CI) in electronic health care. The respective chapters present surveys and practical examples of artificial intelligence applications in the areas of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and affective computing, machine learning, big health data and visualization analytics, computer vision and medical image analysis. The book also addresses new and emerging topics in CI for health care such as the utilization of Social Media (SM) and the introduction of new intelligent paradigms in the security and privacy domains, which are critical for the health sector. The chapters, while of course not exhaustively addressing all the possible aspects of the aforementioned areas, are indicative of the dynamic nature of interdisciplinary research being pursued. Accordingly, the book is intended not only for researchers in the respective fields, but also for medical and administrative personnel working in the health sector, as well as managers and stakeholders responsible for making strategic decisions and defining public health policies.