This volume is a collection of papers written over the course of forty years. It examines political attitudes, patterns of political behavior, and institutional framework of transition to democracy in Poland. Its contents have been shaped by and provide commentary on the often-dramatic political developments in Poland: the emergence of the massive liberation movement “Solidarity” in 1980–81; the dissent against the communist regime in the 1980s; the struggles to pave the roads toward consolidated democracy in the 1990s; and the problems with adaptation to European liberal values in the 21st century that led to democratic backsliding. In conclusion, it presents the cultural and structural background of the cleavage between the proponents of open society and its enemies.